Note: This figure does not contain low-value, low-value export shipments. The statistics come from the U.S. Harmonized Tariff Plan (HTS) at the four-digit level. The HTS consists of a hierarchical structure describing all goods marketed for customs, quota and statistical purposes. This structure is based on the harmonised international system of description and codification of raw materials (SH), managed by the World Customs Organization in Brussels. Fourth, NAFTA has put in place trade dispute resolution procedures. The parties would begin a formal discussion, followed by a discussion at a meeting of the Free Trade Committee, if necessary. If the disagreement has not been resolved, a panel has considered the dispute. The trial helped all parties avoid costly prosecutions in local courts and helped them interpret THE complex NAFTA rules and procedures. These commercial disputes also applied to investors. Assessing the economic impact of trade agreements is a difficult task due to the lack of data and important theoretical and practical questions related to achieving economic outcomes. In addition, such estimates provide an incomplete assessment of the overall economic impact of trade agreements40.40 Many studies indicate that NAFTA has achieved many trade and economic benefits.41 Other studies indicate that NAFTA has generated some cost to U.S. workers42.
but that there are both winners and losers of adaptations. NAFTA influenced other U.S.-negotiated free trade agreements thereafter and also influenced multilateral negotiations. Nafta has launched a new generation of trade agreements in the Western Hemisphere and other parts of the world and has influenced negotiations in areas such as market access, rules of origin, intellectual property rights, foreign investment, dispute resolution, workers` rights and environmental protection. The United States currently has 14 free trade agreements with 20 countries. As with NAFTA, these trade agreements have often been supported or criticized by similar employment arguments. The United States and Canada have not explicitly stated publicly what they can ask of each other in a possible renegotiation of NAFTA. Some discussions may include dairy products, conifer wood or Buy American rules. Canada operates a restrictive supply management system for milk, poultry and eggs, a program that has been explicitly excluded from NAFTA and WTO obligations.
U.S. milk producers may be working to improve market access in Canada. Possible negotiations could also focus on the trade in coniferous timber. The Canadian provinces own most of the woodland and administratively set the price of wood through a flat fee, a volume fee per unit levied for the right to harvest trees. The U.S. industry asserts that the cutting royalties collected by Canadian provinces are subsidized to promote employment or regional development, rather than based on market forces. Canada denies these practices and asserts that Canada has a comparative advantage in wood production. Another problem is U.S. buy policy in the United States. Canada is not satisfied with the application of these guidelines in the United States.